Daemons on Unix - Programming On Unix
venam
(This is part of the podcast discussion extension)

Daemons

Link of the recording [ https://raw.githubusercontent.com/nixers...-05-14.mp3 http://podcast.nixers.net/feed/download....05-141.mp3 ]

Today we'll talk about them, those daemons ({day,dee}mon), what
there is to know about their mechanism and details.

References:

## What does Daemon mean, where does it come from ##
http://catb.org/~esr/jargon/html/D/daemon.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible...ing_System
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daemon_(computing)
https://kb.iu.edu/d/aiau
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Unix_daemons
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Super-server
https://wiki.debian.org/Daemon
https://www.techopedia.com/definition/33...tor-daemon
http://www.linfo.org/daemon.html

## Programming Wise - Foreground/Background process - forking - dissociating ##
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/17954...n-in-linux
http://www.netzmafia.de/skripten/unix/li...howto.html
https://stuporglue.org/writing-a-daemon-with-php/
http://www.danielhall.me/2010/01/writing-a-daemon-in-c/
http://www.enderunix.org/docs/eng/daemon.php
http://cjh.polyplex.org/software/daemon.pdf
man 3 daemon
man 7 daemon

## Management - process tracking - Keep running - crash recovery ##
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/95824...d-a-daemon
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_control_daemon
http://www.tutorialspoint.com/unix/unix-processes.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_ma...computing)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supervisory_program
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_Ma...t_Facility
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_...management
https://superuser.com/questions/454869/d...ces/454902
http://supervisord.org/
https://www.freedesktop.org/software/sys...aemon.html
https://serversforhackers.com/monitoring...upervisord

## Init & Runlevels & States ##
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runlevel
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Init
https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debia...03.en.html
http://www.slackware.com/config/init.php

## Things to care about when its a Daemon ##

### Notifications & Event based #
notify-send
http://www.galago-project.org/specs/noti...ec-0.9.txt
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Udev
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Udev
https://www.usenix.org/legacy/events/use...inal2.html
https://www.infoq.com/articles/inotify-l...monitoring
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kqueue
https://people.eecs.berkeley.edu/~sangji...queue.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libevent
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libuv
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epoll

### Permission and files - security ##

### IPC - signals ##
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/13712...n#16387216
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D-Bus
https://dbus.freedesktop.org/doc/dbus-tutorial.html
https://dbus.freedesktop.org/doc/dbus-sp...ation.html
http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/taoup/...07s02.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix_signal
http://home.deib.polimi.it/barenghi/lib/...aemons.pdf
https://docs.freebsd.org/doc/5.4-RELEASE...emons.html


### Logging ##
man syslog
or anything else
Check the podcast about logs



If you want to contribute check this thread.

Music:
Internet People (2017) - SEAMLESS MUSIC
https://www.jamendo.com/track/1436050/internet-people
venam
--(Transcript)--
# Daemons on Unix #


# Intro #


You've certainly heard of daemons, those processes that lurk in the
background and do what they're supposed to do.

You might even have written and run programs that are daemons.

Today we'll talk about them, those daemons ({day,dee}mon), what
there is to know about their mechanism and details.

A big generic overview of daemons on Unix.


## What does Daemon mean, where does it come from ##


Let's start with the history, etymology, and terminology.

The where does it come from, what does it mean, why it's written this way.

By now, if you've been using Unix for quite a while you should already
know that daemons are not truly demons. You may even have made the
distinction in your mind separating the two concepts.

Some even use different pronunciations not to mix up the terms,
{day,dee}mons

However, this distinction doesn't really exist when it comes to the terms
and history, daemon truly means demon, it's just an older alternative
spelling of the word demon.

Daemon are spirits/supernatural beings of the Greek mythology that
go around doing their deeds in the shadows, overlooking the world or
individuals, sometimes affecting them in good ways, sometimes in bad
ways. They aren't biased, what they do is more or less objective in
that regard.

That's rather different than today's perception of demons as evil mean
satanic spirits.

Those daemons are always there, in the background, symbolizing the not
visible, yet always present and working its will.

But where did the metaphor come from?

To put it bluntly, it was coined by the programmers of the MIT's project
MAC, which ran the compatible time-sharing systems, which was one of the
first time-sharing OS. It was the ancestor that inspired Multics, Unix,
and ITS.

The term was first used to refer to what was called a dragon, and then
more generically used to refer to anything that acted like that dragon.

A dragon being similar to what we call today daemon but in the difference
that it is not invoked at all but instead is used by the system to
perform secondary tasks.

I couldn't find much info about dragon, so if anyone got more on that
please add up resources when this gets released.

Daemon was then used to refer to the more generic concept.

The name daemon itself was inspired by Maxwell's demon, which is a
physics philosophical experiment where an imaginary being interferes
constantly in the background with the particles to make them behave in
certain ways.

This describes well today's use on Unix, a background process that does
system chores.

The first prototype of the daemon concept was a program called DAEMON
that automatically made tape backups of the file system.

After that some started rationalizing the name choice and built the
backcronym Disk And Execution MONitor, a constructed phrase claimed to
be the source but that really isn't.

Today the concept of daemon is present in many areas under other names
such as services, the concept isn't necessarily unique to Unix but it's
most often related to it when you hear that name.

Still it's hard not to equate demon with the satanic underworld definition
when even the BSD mascot, beastie, makes fun of it.


## Generic overview ##


So that's where the name comes from but what's a generic overview of
daemons, what do they really do, what's their job, what's their purpose,
what's special about them.

After much reading, I've compacted the definition of a daemon into
the following:

A daemon is a process in a multitasking OS that offers
services/functionalities or does autonomous tasks, sometimes
repetitive/periodic, sometimes in response to the occurrence of specific
system events or conditions aka supervising the system, most of the time
it's a long running process but not always, most of the time without
interventions and independent of a user, and most of the time in an
unnoticed unobtrusive way, aka in the background.

So mix those and it gives you the recipe for a daemon.

But what about the terms services and servers.

They are subset of what we call daemons.

Daemons are just a bit broader, they don't have to be services.

A daemon can be a long-running background process that answers requests
for services.

So, a service, like the name implies, is a software that provides
capabilities to other softwares.

Services are typically automatically started at boot up, are long-lived,
they have states that can be altered (running/not running), they have
relationships and dependencies with other services, and they are usually
critical components of a system and so are started during boot.

Those services are managed by a daemon, the init process, the first
process started on a system, the PID 1. It's job is to manage what runs at
what time, to handle the dependencies, and regenerates them after crashing
so that the system keeps running correctly. More on that topic later on.

Some examples of such services can be the logging system, a database,
or a network manager.

Daemon can also act as middle man, as message passing systems to the
kernel api/system calls which are services providing access to some
lower level layer.

You can see how services fit as subset of the daemon definition.

A server is also a subset of the daemon definition.

Simply said, servers are processes that are long-running and perform
services based on requests that can be launched remotely from another
machine.

The obvious example here are a webserver, a mail server, or a secure
shell server, sshd.

Other examples of daemons include:

* crond - time-based job scheduler
* BIND - the Berkeley Internet Name Daemon
* dhcpd - dynamically configure tcp/ip information for clients
* syslogd - system logger collector
* ntpd - network time protocol daemon
* inetd - listend for network connection requests and launches daemons to handle them


As you might have noticed a lot of those daemons end in 'd'.

It's a tradition and convention, taken for the sake of clarity, that
daemon names, when checked in the process tree, all have a trailing 'd'.

This is just so that when you give processes a glance you can denote
which is a daemon and which is not.


## Foreground/Background process ##


We said that daemons run as a background processes rather than being
under the direct control of an interactive user, what does this imply?

What does it mean to run in the background?

Let's do a bit of explanations.

There are, arguably, three cases where a process is considered a
background daemon.

The first one is when the process is started during boot time, usually
by the init process, and thus is not attached to any terminal.

The second one is when the process is invoked explicitly, on a terminal,
and then detached from all terminals and ran in the background.

The third case is more or less commonly said to be about "transforming
a process into a daemon", even though it's not really. It consists of
simply having the process in the process group attached to the terminal
but running in the background.

We'll dive into the details of every one of these categories later but
first let's talk about processes in general.

A process is an instance of a running program, it is managed by the
kernel of the OS and is referred to by it's process ID.

When looking from an interaction point of view there are only three types
of processes: interactive - from CLI interaction, batch - from a pipeline,
daemon which are the rest.

Another way to perceive daemons is to see them as those repetitive
administrative tasks that are fired by a scheduler from time to time. But
maybe in that case it's the scheduler, such as cron that is the daemon
and not the tasks themselves.

Yet again, sometimes even the automated background tasks that are fired
upon login can be said to be daemons.

This depends on your perception.

Now from a terminal process management point of view processes are either
in the foreground or in the background.

The foreground processes are the ones we interact with on a terminal, they
get the stdin/stdout/sterr, they are the session leader of a terminal,
and there can only be one session leader, one controlling process of a
terminal at a time.

When one process is the session leader all the other processes in the
group are in the background and run by themselves instead of running
from user inputs.

The signals sent to the terminal are always sent to the process group
which has it as a controlling terminal. The session leader catches it.

With today's job control, that is the BSD style of job control,
terminals send a STOP signal to background processes that try to write
to a terminal, the SIGTTIN and SIGTTOU signals.

```
SIGTTIN 21,21,26 Stop Terminal input for background process
SIGTTOU 22,22,27 Stop Terminal output for background process
```

This makes it a pain if you want to have long running processes in the
background that might inadvertently write to a terminal and be stopped
by mistake.

For that reason, the background processes that want to "act" like
daemons have to become immune/ignore those signals. Or you could possibly
disable the feature in the terminal itself to not send that signal when
a background process tries to write to its terminal.

But that's not the start of the issue with having a "daemon" attached to
a terminal like that. The biggest issue is that if the terminal process
exits the wannabe daemon will be killed because it's still associated
with it.

In fact it's killed because it will receive the SIGHUP, hangup signal
from the terminal, which the default action is to terminate the process.

So one way to alleviate the pain, again, is to ignore that signal.

The `nohup` command does just that, it's a wrapper to ignore SIGHUP.

If stdout and stderr are connected to a terminal, it also redirects them
to nohup.out

But then the question is: What happens when the terminal process ends,
when the parent of the wannabe daemon dies?

Well, that's simple, when the parent of a process terminates it is
assigned/adopted by the init process, PID 1, as parent by default.

Now in this case it will have no controlling terminal and will run in
the background as intended.

That is one reason the daemons are started during the boot process,
but not the only one, as we'll see later.

So we're starting to understand the idea behind running daemons.

It doesn't really lie in the association or disassociation from a
terminal but more in the other criteria we talked about in the earlier
section.

However, as we've seen, it's not as simple to run processes with the
intention of having them as daemons.

It's not as simple when they're not session leaders, nor when they don't
have a controlling terminal.

How do you even communicate with daemons?

This poses many problems, how does this all fall into place?

This makes it hard to write a daemon and to manage them without missing
edge cases and that is why some standards and good practices got built
around daemons over the years.

And that is what we're going to explore next.


## Programming Wise ##


Because of everything we've discussed in the previous section it is
tricky to write a daemon. Fortunately, all you have to do is follow a
set of rules and norms to get your daemon running correctly.

You could possibly create a daemon using the technique we talked about
earlier, namely forking a child process in the background and immediately
exiting so that it is adopted by the init process.

But that's not good enough you have to do other things so that you'll
be sure it won't break.

You can find a list of the series of steps all over the internet.

Some "tips" can even be found in your man pages, checkout the man 7
daemon page.

Most of those recommendations are similar in some ways, and emerge from
the requirements/demands of the service manager of that system, be it the
init system or not, be it Apple MacOS X Daemon, SysV style init systems,
"new-style" systemd, inetd, launchd, etc..

So again, daemons are not really hard to write, on the contrary, they're
easy to put together, what's tricky is to think of the edge cases,
quirks, and side effects.

Things that are usually taken care of when processes are running in an
interactive session on a terminal but not when detached.

For example, what we've talked about earlier, namely the process group,
the user ID running the process, the input/output, etc.

If the daemon is started at boot it has to manage those itself explicitly
and if it's launched from within a login session then it needs to undo
a lot of what has been set during the login sequence to ensure that the
association with the calling environment is destroyed.

In the best of the worlds the service manager or sometimes called
super-server daemon, the process that manages the daemons, which usually
launches them at boot and is also usually the init process, would handle
those steps and perform the functions you need.

That's just a nota-bene to say that the actual procedure doesn't have
to be coded inside the daemon itself but can be external. Let's also
note that for old style SysV daemons those steps are required during
the initialization. Other init systems/service-manager might handle that
for you, so be sure to checkout their documentation.

So now, let's go through the usual criteria that are recommended to turn
a process into a daemon, the order might vary according to different
specs but the ideas are the same.


### Criteria ###


* Create background process


The first step that needs to be taken care of is the one we talked about
before, forking off the parent process of the daemon and let it terminate
gracefully so that the soon-to-be daemon process run autonomously in
the background.

For those who don't know, forking is a system call that creates a child
process that is a near copy of its parent. It's the only system call that
returns two distinct values, the PID of the child for the parent that
keeps running, and 0 for the child, in the case of errors it returns -1.

In sum this step is about separating the daemon from its parent.


* Becoming a session leader & group leader.

On Unix every process has multiple identifiers attached to it, and each
of those identifiers mean something different, usually a way to regroup
related processes.

You certainly know the PID, the process ID, a unique number associated
to the process so that you can refer to it.

There's also the parent ID, the ID of the process that started it.
There's the group id which is the PID of the process group leader.
There's the session ID, which is again, just the ID of the session leader.

Processes in the same session have the same controlling terminal, processes
in the same group also belong to the same session. But a session can
have multiple process groups.

To picture that, the shell is usually the session leader, it controls
the terminal, and every pipeline executed is a process group, they run
grouped with each other.

Ok so we have a background process without a parent, or actually an
orphan process inherited by the init process, but that process is still
attached to the terminal itself and the process group associated to it
because it has inherited it from the dead parent.

In this case the daemon is still subject to receiving terminal generated
signals and signals sent to the process group, remember for example SIGHUP
which we talked about earlier. So it would be pretty bad. We also don't
want to ignore those signals, as we said.

It might also be a good idea to reset all the signal handlers to their
default behavior because you might not know how the parent has changed
them.

We need to detach/disassociate ourselves, to create our own process group
and become our own process leader, that means disassociating the daemon
from any controlling terminals and having its own session.

Under some systems the previous step, the fork step, is not mandatory
and the detachment can be done directly, however on other systems it's
mandatory because a process that is already a group leader cannot change
its group and forking is an easy way to solve that. Forking is also a
way to prevent the terminal from locking up making the shell believe
the daemon has terminated.

There are different system calls to do what we talked about, ioctl on
some older system or setsid on newer that is for the associated session
ID, and for the group we have setpgrp amongst others, which is not used
along with setsid.

So at this point if you looked at the process tree you should see that
your daemon has no controlling terminal, that it's parent process ID is
1, that its session ID is the same as its group id and the same as its
own ID. It's its own session leader and group leader.


* Fork again

If you know a thing or two about process management, which we might
discuss soon in another episode, you may know that being a session leader
is the only way to potentially reacquire a terminal.

We don't want that, we don't want the daemons to acquire any terminal,
not because its bad but because we have a limited set of terminals
and we're not gonna spare one for every daemon we have. Also, even in
systems where we don't have that problem, where process gets attached
to already acquired terminals, we don't want this because we don't even
need a terminal for the daemons, it'll only create complications.

Under some systems, like 4.2BSD, this is already taken care of because
only processes with the group ID of zero can acquire a controlling
terminal, and our daemon has a group ID equal to its process ID, as you
may remember.

But we have to take care of all systems and all cases.

The easiest way to prevent the reacquisition of a terminal is to fork
again and run the actual daemon in that child while, again, killing the
parent. And because the parent is the process group leader it has to
ignore SIGHUP because otherwise it'll forward SIGHUP to the child and
kill it, since the parent is the session leader. This signal handling
will also be inherited by the child.

This has the final effect of having a daemon that has no controlling
terminal, that is immune to signals from the tty driver, and cannot
acquire a new terminal since it's not a process group leader, its PID
is different than its PGID and SID.


* Resetting the environment


Alright, so those steps already should give us a nice daemon but there
are other small things to take into consideration too.

For example, it's a good idea to set the current working directory of
the daemon to the root directory instead of the one inherited from the
parent. Like that the process doesn't keep hold of any directory or
resources under any mounted filesystem, allowing them to be unmounted
at any time, and the root directory is always guaranteed to be there.

A daemon also doesn't have any use for file descriptors and so it's also
a good idea to close the ones that have been inherited by the parent
or to redirect them to /dev/null, be them file descriptors to files or
the standard ones stdin/stdout/stderr, anyway the daemons don't have a
terminal. It'll prevent security issues too.

It's also good to do that because sometimes the files related to the
terminal settings are still opened, and when they are the terminal
settings are not reset until the last process releases them.

Listen to the episode about terminals to know more about terminal
settings.

Another attribute a daemon inherit from the parent is the umask, the
file creation mask, it's also a good idea to set it to 0 to allow the
permission masks to depend only on the daemon and not what the parent
wanted it to be.

You can listen to the podcast about bits and bytes, I've discussed about
masks in it.

You may also need to reset environment variables to sane settings that
don't interfere with the daemon instead of using the ones from the parent.


* Main loop


Nice, and sweet, we should be settled now, we got our daemon running in
its own environment.

Now we can add whatever extra we want to add, be them related to the
way we want to communicate with the daemon like logs and whatever else.

Usually the main part, the payload, the core, of a daemon is a big loop,
an infinite, while 1, loop that repeats the same tasks over and over
again in some cases checking for conditions. It would've been better to
call them "the myth of Sisyphus" instead of daemons.

So let's summarize the steps you need to take care of before the actual
daemon code:

1. Create a background process, the parent of the daemon is PID 1.
2. Become a session leader & group leader, GID == SID == PID.
3. Fork again to detach and force it not to reacquire a terminal. (the
parent should ignore SIGHUP) PID != GID and PID != SID
4. Reset the environment:
* Close all open file descriptors.
* Connect /dev/null to standard input, output, and error.
* Reset all signal handlers to their default.
* Reset the signal mask.
* Sanitize the environment variables.
* Reset the umask to 0.
* Change the current directory to the root directory.
5. Actual daemon loop


### Sample ###


```

/*
* daemonize.c
* This example daemonizes a process, writes a few log messages,
* sleeps 20 seconds and terminates afterwards.
*/

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <signal.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <syslog.h>

static void skeleton_daemon()
{
pid_t pid;

/* Fork off the parent process */
pid = fork();

/* An error occurred */
if (pid < 0)
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);

/* Success: Let the parent terminate */
if (pid > 0)
exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);

/* On success: The child process becomes session leader */
if (setsid() < 0)
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);

/* Catch, ignore and handle signals */
//TODO: Implement a working signal handler */
signal(SIGCHLD, SIG_IGN);
signal(SIGHUP, SIG_IGN);

/* Fork off for the second time*/
pid = fork();

/* An error occurred */
if (pid < 0)
exit(EXIT_FAILURE);

/* Success: Let the parent terminate */
if (pid > 0)
exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);

/* Set new file permissions */
umask(0);

/* Change the working directory to the root directory */
/* or another appropriated directory */
chdir("/");

/* Close all open file descriptors */
int x;
for (x = sysconf(_SC_OPEN_MAX); x>=0; x--)
{
close (x);
}

/* Open the log file */
openlog ("firstdaemon", LOG_PID, LOG_DAEMON);
}
int main()
{
skeleton_daemon();

while (1)
{
//TODO: Insert daemon code here.
syslog (LOG_NOTICE, "First daemon started.");
sleep (20);
break;
}

syslog (LOG_NOTICE, "First daemon terminated.");
closelog();

return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}
```

### When it is someone else that does the job ###


As we said earlier, all those steps setting up the environment for
a daemon can be taken care of by a third party, for example the init
process.

Still in those cases there are certain requirements that need to be met
by the daemon, not only to be able to launch them but to supervise and
control them also.

Executing the steps we mentioned before may even interfere with how well
all this functionality happens.

Those new requirements are quite straight forward, they are usually the
following but not limited to them.

Two signals should be handled SIGTERM to exit cleanly the daemon and
SIGHUP to reload the configuration files if it applies.

The exit code from the main daemon process should reflect if there are
errors and problems while executing the daemon.

The daemon should be integrate correctly within the system, be it an init
file of some sort or anything else. It also should rely on the system's
functionality as much as possible instead of re-inventing them.

If applicable the daemon should notify that system upon startup completion
or status update via an interface provided by that system.

And sometimes using the communication mechanism offered by that system,
be it for inter-process communication or for logging.

All and all, you'll have to refer to the system providing the daemon
handling.


### daemon (3) ###


So those were a lot of steps we talked about earlier, isn't that a
repetitive task, why not wrap it up?

There's a function called daemon() that first appeared in 4.4BSD and
that does the core of what we talked about earlier.

Some disavow using it as it doesn't implement every single one of the
steps, for example the ones about cleaning up the environment.

However, that a nifty convenience routine that let you do in one line the
whole detachment, running in the background, closing files, and changing
directory parts. This is all really good if you want to throw in 2 min
a daemon and don't want to bother re-implementing everything while not
relying on a third party system.


## Management ##


There's the daemon, and it's running.

Now how do you keep it running, how do you manage, supervise, and track
it, and how do you interact with it.

There are programs that we call service manager or super-server daemon,
the ones we mentioned before, for instance launchd, systemd, Upstart,
Service Management Facility, Android init, sysvinit, runit, OpenRC,
supervisord, daemontools, etc..

Most of those are also init systems, but regardless of that and the
other features and functions offered by the init, what do those service
managers have in common, what are some commonalities they offer.

Let's check different features that could be present in them so that we
can get the big idea of their role:

- Start the daemons in a synchronized and deterministic manner according
to a configuration file or in an asynchronous and non-deterministic
manner according to cross-dependencies between daemons set in
configuration files or activated dynamically according to the needs.

- With the above comes what we talked about earlier about daemon creation
but sometimes not necessarily all the steps. All of this also might
be configurable, for example you can control the environment variables
passed to the daemons from the service manager.

- Control and monitor all the processes and services in the system.

- Recover the system in case of errors or crashes, make it more
reliable. For example it can implement a configurable restart and
retry mechanisms depending on the daemon configuration.

- Provide useful and detailed debug information in case of a crash:
Process details, registers dump and memory map.

- Create a graphical representation of the system's processes.

- An internal and centralized log mechanism implemented in it that can
be relied on by the daemon.

- A centralized way to control the state of daemons, start, stop, and
monitor them.

- An integrated inter-process communication protocol integrated inside
of it to control and notify daemons.


This all sounds amazing, right? And it certainly is!

Now how does the service manager do all those things, how does it know
which daemon is where and its state.

There are many approach to this problem.

First of all, let's assume the daemon has implemented the criteria we
mentioned earlier when we said it's a third party entity that starts it.

Apart and additionally from those criteria, which if we want to sum
them up are about handling SIGHUP and SIGTERM, returning the right exit
code, and use the functionalities provided by that system instead of
re-inventing its own.

A way to approach it is to have the daemon not started completely in
the background but to leave it as a child of the supervisor so that
it will receive SIGCHLD when the daemon stops. The fork/exec approach,
which is a rather direct management approach.

Another way is to write the PID of the daemon in a file in a specific
location, for example in /run/ or /var/run, and then have the supervisor
poll or use something such as libnotify to assess the changes happening
to the daemon. It's also a nice way to have only one instance of a daemon
that can't allow to have more than one.

Yet another way could be to notify the supervisor from the daemon process
itself when its initialization is complete. Or when the parent of the
sub-second-child exits during the daemon creation.

The blocks are starting to fit into each others, now let's see what's up
with the init system, why is it so special compared to the supervisor's
roles we just mentioned.


## Init & Runlevels ##


The init is not so different than service managers, actually that's
one of the functionality that an init system can have. The init system
itself being a daemon that is automatically started by the kernel during
the boot process `/sbin/init`, it's the first process.

This isn't an episode about init systems so we'll keep it short.

The real difference an init system has as a service manager over others
lies in the fact that it's the first process to start on a Unix system,
the PID 1.

Whatever process it starts, then, will have it as parent, and as we
said having the init system as parent is one of the criteria to run a
daemon, so it can skip the forking step altogether. It's also nice to
manage daemons from the init process because it's the process that will
receive the SIGCHLD when one of it's children dies, namely the daemon,
and thus is in a nice position to manage them.

Because it is the first process it gives the leasure of being able to
manipulate, start and stop daemons early on boot and on shutdown, because
it's a process that cannot be killed you can rely on it to efficiently
manage daemons.

However that poses one problem we just vaguely mentioned before, the
dependency and order in which those daemons are started.

There are many schools of thought that take this approach differently.

For instance, the original research UNIX init simply ran an initialization
shell script in /etc/rc.

Today we have two main categories, the synchronous ones and the
asynchronous ones.

Let's take the traditional and prevalent System V as an example of a
synchronous one.

A synchronous init system means that daemons are started sequentially,
waiting for the previous one to finish before starting the next one,
it follows a predetermined simple order, which may lead to delay during
the boot.

But daemons are not only started on boot, they can be started or stopped
at different stages in time, at different machine states.

To automate that, the SysV init style uses what is called a runlevel,
which is a number representing the state the machine is currently in
after boot. So for example there could be one for normal user mode,
another for single-user mode, another for shutdown, another for booting
maybe, another for graphical environment, etc..

When switching from one runlevel to another the init process executes
or stops the appropriate daemons that is tagged with the appropriate
runlevel number.

Those numbers usually go from 0 to 6 and their meanings vary depending
on the implementation, there are only 3 of them that are considered
"standard", otherwise the init refers to the /etc/inittab file which
defines what each configured runlevel does in a given system.

0. Halt
1. Single user mode (also known as S or s)
6. Reboot

You can also manually change the runlevel using `telinit`.

That's the generic idea behind a the synchronous service manager as init,
it's quite simple.

On the other side of the spectrum we have the asynchronous init systems
that manages daemons in parallel, automatically handling dependencies
between them.

In those kind of init systems the daemons have to be configured to say
what they depend upon so that the init can resolve that dependency. It
might even choose to store the way it "rightly" handled that dependency
so that it'll be able to use it without recomputing it on the next boot.

This makes the booting process relatively faster but it doesn't stop
there.

When asynchronously handling daemons you may not even have to rely on
things such as state of the machine or runlevels, you can do the daemon
activation dynamically depending on multiple conditions and mechanisms
at the same time.

For example the bluetooth daemon can be automatically started when a
bluetooth capable hardware is plugged in and stopped when plugged out.

Those mechanisms range from the usual activation on boot, to socket-based
trigger, to dbus-based activation, to device-based activation which
rely on sysfs or udev or whatever, to path-based activation listening
to filesystem changes, to timer-based activation, etc..

And don't forget that you can mix those up for the same daemon.
However this all comes at the cost of the init process being more complex
and having more dependencies.


## Things to care about when its a Daemon ##


So the daemon is running...

But it's not connected to a terminal, how does it communicate with the
rest of the system and how does it know when to do things?

The three common ways are event based notifications, inter-process
communication, and logging.


Let's start with notifications and events.

There are many things that can be checked and looked at for notifications.

For example you could poll, keep checking once in a while, the filesystem
to see if some specific files `stat`us has changed and trigger actions
in the daemon accordingly.

Or instead of keeping redoing this maneuver over and over again you
could rely on instant notification of changing using your operating
system facilities such as epoll and inotify on Linux, or Kqueue on BSDs,
or more generically a multi-platform abstraction such as libevent.

Another example of notification of system changes could be about the
hardwares connected to the machine. You could implement in your daemon a
way to do actions based on device events. For that you'll have to rely
on your operating system device manager, devd on FreeBSD, polling the
sys/devfs maybe for new devices, or udev or uedev, or again your could
use a multi-platform abstraction.

You can listen to the podcast about input devices for more info on that.

Let's move to the inter-process communication, the IPC techniques
available for a daemon.

Well, there are many, actually it could be anything that doesn't rely
on a terminal, so forget about pipes, redirections, or filters.

Let's mention a few.

The simplest way but not necessarily the safest is to use temporary
files. It works using the techniques we just mentioned about notification
of changes to that file. The drawback is that it can lead to deadlock,
you cannot know which process can access the file at what time.

Another simple way but limited and also not the safest is about using
signals. You probably only want to handle the SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2 signals,
so that only gives you two possible actions that you can do after
receiving a signal, there's no data transfer and real communication. If
you implement signal handling in a daemon be sure to document what
it does.

You can go back to the podcast about signals to know more about them.

A more complex way but again limited, this time limited to the same
machine, is the memory map, which maps a file into memory so that it can
be shared across processes. It poses the same problems as a file on the
filesystem though.

The last IPC method I want to share is one that has many super categories
above it, it's socket based IPC.

Sockets are a bidirectional stream that works on the same machine
(`AF_UNIX`) and over the network too (`AF_INET`).

So you can simply receive any request from clients that would connect to
your daemon, or your daemon could act as a client to a server somewhere
else.

There are layers above that, for instane, HTTP and XML-RPC.

XML-RPC is an xml protocol that does remote procedure call, the most
prevalent instance of this today is dbus. A remote procedure call simply
means that you send a request so that a procedure will be executed
remotely and the result will be returned to you.

Many init system wrap daemons with a dbus interface around them,
Upstart and systemd do that for instance. It sort of have become a
defacto protocol.

It was used as a replacement to similar systems such as CORBA and DCOP,
which are truly horrible, and so dbus is clean compared to them.

A simple example you can relate to would be the way you communicate with
your notification daemon aka popups daemon aka poptarts daemon. You use
the `notify-send` command which is simply a wrapper over dbus that will
send an XML-RPC query to the dbus-daemon which will then notify whoever
listens to that type of requests and get the result back. In our case
it will be a notification request and our notification daemon will
receive it.

Example of something going over the wire:
```
Method call sender=:1.1257 -> dest=:1.30 serial=7 path=/org/freedesktop/Notifications; interface=org.freedesktop.Notifications; member=Notify
string "notify-send"
uint32 0
string ""
string "hello"
string ""
array [
]
array [
dict entry(
string "urgency"
variant byte 1
)
]
int32 -1
method return sender=:1.30 -> dest=:1.1257 reply_serial=7
uint32 221
```


Always keep in mind that the simplest organization is the best when it
does what it's supposed to do.

What about logging?

Logging is more generically a user nudge, a way to tell the user what
is going on in the daemon, to be able to debug it as there's no other
way to tell.

This could be implemented, yet again, in any possible way.

From sending and email to a user, to a POST on a remote server, to the
usual syslog or any logging system and mechanisms.

You can listen back to the episode about logs to get an idea of the
possible options.


# Conclusion


So that's about it, that's everything I have to say about daemons.

Maybe one last thing would be to make sure the daemon code is secure
and fails gracefully, there's nothing more annoying than a daemon that
keeps crashing for no apparent reasons.

Your daemon should also do all the blahblahblah of the Unix philosophy,
offer one service and do it well.

Yeah, that's it!

I hope it gave you a great deal of info about the ins and outs of daemons!

As usual, if you have more info or things to mention or rectify about
this podcast subject you can do this on the podcast extension thread.

--------

References:

```
## What does Daemon mean, where does it come from ##
http://catb.org/~esr/jargon/html/D/daemon.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible...ing_System
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daemon_(computing)
https://kb.iu.edu/d/aiau
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Unix_daemons
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Super-server
https://wiki.debian.org/Daemon
https://www.techopedia.com/definition/33...tor-daemon
http://www.linfo.org/daemon.html

## Programming Wise - Foreground/Background process - forking - dissociating ##
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/17954...n-in-linux
http://www.netzmafia.de/skripten/unix/li...howto.html
https://stuporglue.org/writing-a-daemon-with-php/
http://www.danielhall.me/2010/01/writing-a-daemon-in-c/
http://www.enderunix.org/docs/eng/daemon.php
http://cjh.polyplex.org/software/daemon.pdf
man 3 daemon
man 7 daemon

## Management - process tracking - Keep running - crash recovery ##
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/95824...d-a-daemon
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_control_daemon
http://www.tutorialspoint.com/unix/unix-processes.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_ma...computing)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supervisory_program
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_Ma...t_Facility
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_...management
https://superuser.com/questions/454869/d...ces/454902
http://supervisord.org/
https://www.freedesktop.org/software/sys...aemon.html
https://serversforhackers.com/monitoring...upervisord

## Init & Runlevels & States ##
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runlevel
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Init
https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debia...03.en.html
http://www.slackware.com/config/init.php

## Things to care about when its a Daemon ##

### Notifications & Event based #
notify-send
http://www.galago-project.org/specs/noti...ec-0.9.txt
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Udev
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Udev
https://www.usenix.org/legacy/events/use...inal2.html
https://www.infoq.com/articles/inotify-l...monitoring
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kqueue
https://people.eecs.berkeley.edu/~sangji...queue.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libevent
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libuv
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epoll

### Permission and files - security ##

### IPC - signals ##
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/13712...n#16387216
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D-Bus
https://dbus.freedesktop.org/doc/dbus-tutorial.html
https://dbus.freedesktop.org/doc/dbus-sp...ation.html
http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/taoup/...07s02.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix_signal
http://home.deib.polimi.it/barenghi/lib/...aemons.pdf
https://docs.freebsd.org/doc/5.4-RELEASE...emons.html


### Logging ##
man syslog
or anything else
Check the podcast about logs
```


--------

Music:
Internet People (2017) - SEAMLESS MUSIC
https://www.jamendo.com/track/1436050/internet-people




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