My previous comment mentioned my current job is at a .NET shop, but we do have a couple small internal services written in Go. For those, we use Go's mod feature so that you don't need a $GOPATH, which thankfully Pike and co have decided to move away from.
`go build` produces a single executable containing the runtime, libraries, and application code (as long as the libraries are pure go, the C FFI is a whole different animal). The executable is then ran as a service on a server, no need to install any runtime server-side.
As an aside, I always had a strong dislike for the whole $GOPATH thing, and I'm glad that go's maintainers have come up with a system to replace it.